Overview of Computer Programming

A computer program is a set of instructions…

A computer program is a collection of instructions that perform a specific task when executed by a computer.
Programming involves the creation of a series of lines, called code, which a computer executes. The lines comprise a program.

Procedural Programming

A procedural language is a language which follows a procedure (step by step instructions) given by the programmer. These languages are also known as top-down languages. Most of the procedural languages are built earlier, like- C, FORTRAN, COBOL, etc.
A procedural language is a type of computer programming language that specifies a series of well-structured steps and procedures within its programming context to compose a program. It contains a systematic order of statements, functions, and commands to complete a computational task or program. 


2. Object-Oriented Programming
The C++ Standard Library

C programs consist of pieces/modules called functions
A programmer can create his own functions
Advantage: the programmer knows exactly how it works
Disadvantage: time-consuming
Programmers will often use the C library functions
Use these as building blocks
Avoid re-inventing the wheel
If a premade function exists, generally best to use it rather than write your own
Library functions carefully are written, efficient, and portable

C++ and C++ How to Program

C++
Superset of C developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs
"Spruces up" C, and provides object-oriented capabilities
Object-oriented design very powerful
10 to 100 fold increase in productivity
The dominant language in industry and academia
Learning C++
Because C++ includes C, some feel it is best to master C, then learn C++

Other High-level Languages

FORTRAN 

Used for scientific and engineering applications

COBOL 

Used to manipulate large amounts of data
Pascal  
Intended for academic use
Procedural Programming

Procedural Programming

A procedural language is a language which follows a procedure (step by step instructions) given by the programmer. These languages are also known as top-down languages. Most of the procedural languages are built earlier, like- C, FORTRAN, COBOL, etc.
A procedural language is a type of computer programming language that specifies a series of well-structured steps and procedures within its programming context to compose a program. It contains a systematic order of statements, functions, and commands to complete a computational task or program. 
Structured Programming is also known as Modular Programming and is a subset of the procedural programming language
Structured Programming

Structured programming 

Dividing the large problem into the smaller modules called functions or procedures. Each function or module handles the particular task and the collection of all the functions is called a program, which solves the large problem.
A disciplined approach to writing programs
Clear, easy to test and debug and easy to modify.
Modular programming is another example of structural programming, where a program is divided into interactive modules
Multitasking
Specifying that many activities run in parallel 

Comparison of C and C++

C++ is derived from C language
C++ is a superset of C: Almost every correct statement in C is also correct in C++, although the reverse is not true.
The most important element added to C to create C++ concern classes, objects, and object-oriented programming.
C++ was originally called C with classes.
An improved approach to input/output (I/O) and writing commands.

Basics of a Typical C Program Development Environment
Phases of C++Programs:

  • Edit
  • Preprocess
  • Compile
  • Link
  • Load
  • Execute 

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